Reconciliation is a complex process resulting from long-term work to resolve the grievances of the parties to the conflict. Moreover, it includes more complex processes dealing with post-war consequences: the reintegration of international relations, trust, and tradition. Difficulties often accompany the implementation of reconciliation, the solution of which requires not only concessions but also mutual influence. The aim of this work is to analyze the concept of reconciliation in regard to national, local, and individual challenges.
Reconciliation is a multidimensional process, which has many factors influencing it. Lederach states that reconciliation must look at the entire system and all relationships, as it is the basis of conflict and its resolution. In this regard, the important challenge which may occur is a national issue. Namely, the authorities implement the national idea, and the challenge is to restore public truth. It is also manifested after prolonged propaganda, in cases in which every citizen is ensured that the opposite party of the conflict is an enemy.
According to Lederach, reconciliation represents a place where concerns about the past and the future can meet. In this case, people must find ways to face themselves and their enemies, hopes, and fears, which constitutes a challenge on the local level. However, the important challenge of reconciliation is the individual-level trauma resulting from an incident. It may include observing cruelty, murder, and injustice. Moreover, during conflicts, it is common for many people to become refugees, which also forms trauma on an individual level. In any case, reconciliation is not just establishing a documental agreement that would meet the parties’ demands. It also includes a process of internal rebirth of each individual who witnessed the violence.