The Marxism Versus Liberalism Comparison

Topic: Political Ideologies
Words: 4154 Pages: 15


Marxism is a communal, radical, and commercial philosophy that scrutinizes the outcome of entrepreneurship, efficiency, and financial growth and disputes for a worker revolution to inverse capitalism to favor communalism. Liberalism is a radical fiscal policy highlighting personal independence and protecting individual rights against the public and private economic participants comprising businesses (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). Marxism aims at controlling an individual’s well-being, while Liberalism supports the protection of the citizens’ liberty. Liberals believe that a regime is required to protect individuals from being hurt by others but at the same time, the government can pose a menace to destroy freedom. This article will compare Liberalism and Marxism and conclude which is better.

The Marxism Background

Marxism is a thought that Karl Marx founded to illustrate the outcome of tussles among social groups. While developing Marxism, Marx predicted that this theory would be practiced in more established and progressive capital countries because these were the targets of revolution (Nowak, 2022). Marx believed that companies unavoidably paid the employees fewer salaries compared to the output. For example, if a laborer needs approximately two dollars to cater to all basic needs, and the worker’s output is five dollars daily worth of the work done, the employer makes a profit of three dollars. In most cases, Marxism discusses a state that is already developed and innovative and claims that public rebellions are unavoidable and grounded on numerous norms. An example of the assumption is that Marxism believes that entrepreneurial nations cannot allow individuals to support communalism. When citizens are denied the freedom to socialize, this can lead to revolutionary fury that can make the people rebel. The concept believes that every individual will notice the situation each one is in; hence, the folks will unite for a revolt.

Marxism trusts in the despotism of the waged people, where leadership is only for the rich individuals. The poor are discriminated against and dictated to by the regime and denied freedom of expression (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). The theory is based on an indication founded on the idea that societal amendment and enhancement can be attained by applying socialism. In Marxist governments, many people use most of the time being employed and productive for the benefit of limited rich leaders. Marxism applies colonialism philosophy, which assimilates financial and geopolitical competition among states. The philosophy separates the tendencies and capitalism laws to be knowledgeable on the direction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship direction has four stages: start maturity, failure, and lastly, demise, which help pinpoint the heir and transition to a certain community. Therefore, Marxism has an unpredictable succession period and weakening and bereavement stages. Finance capital attains goals due to practical measures applied by Marxism, and the theory demands that rules are put in place to regulate economic accomplishments while reaching the target to maximize profits in a short period.

Partitioning of class, government promotion of joint flexibility and providing financial support to small and medium-sized companies clearly describe what Marxism is. The features intended to make the societal direction steadier by practicing control over majority poor people (Nowak, 2022). Established countries have laws that illegalize discrimination against the poor. Powers are only engaged during predicaments in matured organisms, especially when the system is in danger. Efforts are made to ensure that extra production is made for sale to maximize the state’s profits. According to Marxism, the methods of controlling production are interested in capacity rather than the well-being of the laborers. Marxism argues that competition should be interested in decreasing work to its standardized system. The theory opposes the formation of trading or corporation unions but instead implements numerous approaches to encompass the employees through uninterrupted repressions. Marxism believes that the formation of such unifications has radical consequences and can reduce the amount of production and profits, leading to minimal or no company development.

Marxism does not favor the poor but privileges the wealthy and the government since only the rich are granted leadership opportunities. The poor are only involved in exercises like voting. However, when the event is over, the politicians will not be recognized until the next main event that needs the participation of such people (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). Marxism, in most circumstances, probably opposes the ruling of public equality; hence does not apply fairness but instead uses a variety of approaches to ensure separation among laborers. The methods consist of employment casualization and disuniting permanent and transitory employees. The ideology supports the growth of the mid-class because this category would facilitate the enactment of dictatorial leaders. The theory applies bureaucracy and radical-lawful procedures of control on employment to public service. Marxism encourages economic domination because the rich companies and capitalists fully fund the minor firms. The guidelines and rules shielding competition among social groups are not active.

In Marxist administrations, markets are more controlled and limited in how jobs are done. Such markets are strong-minded by extra labor production. Marxists believe that opening markets for the global community is bound to impede nationwide commercial constancy (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). Nations that apply Marxism trust that having direct supervision over the spouts would help strengthen the countries’ economy, hence having superior powers over main opponents. Governments that practice Marxism, in most cases, gets involved in armed and civil combats to solve financial disasters instead of implementing voluntary universal legal programs for cracking down on interior or worldwide clashes. Therefore, countries that apply Marxism depend on martial powers to protect the states’ radical frugality. Citizens of states that support Marxism do not enjoy human rights because the government does not improvise to protect such rights and ensure that folks have freedom in economic and political activities. Marxism does not favor the poor because such people work hard to benefit the rich. Only the wealthy are most privileged and granted chances in leadership in states that apply this philosophy. Marxists believe that nothing is achieved easily and for a country to achieve the best production, the residents should be committed.

The Liberalism Background

Liberalism is grounded on the idea that giving people maximum liberty would help abolish political dictators, attain advanced goals and profits, and diminish interior fights resulting in universal peace and wealth. In Liberalism, the administration cannot control people’s freedom and is streamlined at the same level of ethical principles as the doctrines governing the citizens (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). The ideology targets attaining peace, universal incorporation, and allowing people to trade freely. Liberalism encourages dedication and opens chances for the right to sovereignty by the public. The ideology favors citizens in a state by stating that individuals should be given a chance to enjoy rational and economic freedom. The theory should make a foundation for governmental directives that apply minimum governmental rules. In addition, the government’s main role is to ensure that citizens enjoy intellectual and economic freedom. An individual gets chances to follow one’s creativity or ways to increase productivity. Liberalism argues that peace can best be achieved by implementing and reinforcing independent foundations on a universal foundation.

The ideology believes that agreements, rules, and regulations are supposed to be consensus-oriented and that the country’s favoritism should be the main factor of production. State capabilities should not be the principal cause of how a nation conducts itself (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). The principle implies that each state is given a chance to take equivalence into its domestic level regarding the personal inspiration of its inhabitants while producing happy transnational relationships. The philosophy believes peace gained without battles would help countries and residents make coherent calculations that help incorporate universal and general securities. Liberals proposes lenience of preference through independent institutes, which progressive learning institutes reinforce. The institutions help in reducing war among residents of the same country. The ideology admits that preferences habitually differ as per the country concerning the government type, culture, and economic structure. Peace in a country can only be promoted if there is a formation of a regime that represents the will of the public. The reason is that, in most cases, the government is the source of conflicts, not the citizens.

Liberalists puts arguments on the belief that conflicts can be solved through recognized legal techniques established and functioning under the rule of law. Launching a charitable intercontinental legal society to justify global statutory tasks is essential because the rule of law is used for leaders in the same way as for the people (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). The philosophy agrees that the global community can recognize belligerents by establishing a real alliance of respectful institutes and countries to oppose dictatorship and discriminative powers. Thus, Liberalism is the ideology under which the United Nations and the League of Nations were documented and established. Universal suffrage and access to education by all citizens is another goal for liberals.

Liberalism also believes in planning and implementing supportive intercontinental and financial associations to enhance the incorporation of transnational arcades. Such actions of unity are also targeted at boosting global fiscal steadiness (Nowak, 2022). Liberals believe that the government should be concerned with ensuring that citizens acquire adequate freedom, but at the same time, the regime may be the source of threats to the people. The citizens should be free to demonstrate if some people are denied freedom. Thomas Paine, an American radical pamphleteer, articulated that the government could be a cause of a threat. Paine argued that citizens depend on the military, rulings, and magistrates to safeguard the people’s freedom. However, at the same time, the administrators can overturn the intimidating powers against the people leading to conflicts. When the public is involved in wars, the government has nothing to lose, but some residents may lose their lives because the army will be deployed to disperse the people. The military may make accidental shootings that can cause the death of a few or many citizens.

Liberals aim to invent an organism that gives the regime authority to defend human rights and freedom and guard the leaders against misusing supremacy. Liberalism believes that for citizens to have the required freedom there should be a good relationship between the residents and the government. Most liberalists have emphasized that the government authority can endorse and protect citizens’ liberty (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). Liberalists say that the major duty of leaders should be eliminating hindrances that avert folks from living free or realizing that every person is talented. Such obstacles include poverty, sicknesses, discrimination against the poor, and illiteracy. States should be advised to apply Liberalism because this safeguards people’s liberty. If states globally adopt the ideology of Liberalism, there will be peaceful living and high economic progress for the state and the folks.

Comparison between Marxism and Liberalism

Marxism and Liberalism are adopted by folks worldwide and are all important to the nations depending on who is feeling favored most by each idea. Both connect with certain humanity’s fiscal, political, and communal features (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). The main difference between the two is that Marxism is termed a concept while Liberalism, on the other hand, is an ideology. Liberalism is mostly concerned with a person’s situation, while Marxism is about communal change. The two models deal with the state of the people in a community and the government’s response to the well-being of its citizens. At the same time, Marxism and Liberalism vary per different issues and components that influence universal assimilation, such as international businesses, intercontinental crimes, and country’s authority.

Liberalism concentrates more on the radical economy, but Marxism emphasizes monetary matters and profit maximization. For example, Bernie Sanders, an independent communalist, strongly believes that the United States can be improved if the taxes of citizens with high income could be raised and put more governance of the central government (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). Sanders says that autonomous Marxism would not be like the former authoritarian Marxists because the citizens will be in control of the country. All socialists are perceived as dictators by the public. Liberalism believes in personal freedom and equal privileges among people, while Marxism supports the idea of the diversity of societal class and tussle to attain the top imperative social category. For example, in Liberalism, in political gatherings, the rich should not be privileged and given front seats while the poor stand in the sun, as it happens in most cases.

All individuals should be treated in the same manner despite the differences in color, gender, ethnicity, and whether wealthy or poor. Both groups should be seen as important to the government. In Marxism, rules and regulations are used whereby people are controlled by applying economic force to the people (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). Countries that accept Liberalism in government and leadership consider equality and that human beings should be given intelligence and economic liberty. Liberalism disagrees with eliminating communal protection by the leaders and proposes that the government should put much effort into encouraging equality, opening more learning institutions, improving healthcare services, protecting the living environment, and amending economic activities for good productivity. Democracy is endorsed among people through organizations used to inspire peoples’ rights in Liberalism, but on the other hand, Marxism opposes the creation of associations that promote personal privileges. For example, according to Marxists, institutes like trade unions are known for affecting the government’s and the public’s ability to maximize production and profits.

Liberalism encourages great fairness, which endorses active administrative involvement by all entities and inspires peoples’ contribution by empowering access to information. Marxism involves discriminative and vigorous governmental involvement using unfairness while recruiting in extreme events and communal service (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). Marxism does not support the public to be reached out for vital information. However, the rich use private media to present personal info, which only benefits the wealthy in discriminating against the poor. Liberalism supports public involvement and ensures that the government exposes all important information concerning the state and the citizens on time. Liberalism also cheers free trade by forming global financial groups and commercial strategies. Few strategic principles on trade are applied in the philosophy.

Liberalists believe that through trading groups, people learn about new ideas for carrying out economic activities that increase yield and incomes. On the other hand, Marxism concentrates on defending economic monopoly by the rich hence economic assimilation of a nation is seen as harmful to the financial firmness of the country (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). The ideology is mostly concerned with controlling trading events. Liberalism believes in attaining universal integrity through voluntary global legal organizations that use the rule of law and warrant the liberation and freedom of persons and countries. Marxism believes in accomplishing resolutions to geopolitical struggles through radical and marital conflicts. Regimes and the global public should intend at in applying the principles of Liberalism to have a democratic society that respects the rule of law and supports people’s rights. Marxism is strict and would inspire more domination of people and civic and global conflicts. Liberalism believes in exponential commercial growth, and liberals view a state as economic exploitation. At the same time, Marxism looks with contempt on people and the country by describing nation and race as a source of biasness.

A liberalist is always happy when people become the source of profits and increased productivity. An example of individuals being helpful to high profits is big firms employing many laborers and using less machinery (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). Both philosophies believe in having principles and morals in a typical domestic homage. Liberalism and Marxism have similar beliefs and values in a standard Family ménage. Liberals argue that in a family, the father, mother, and children should be equal and that none should be given more priority than others should. For example, Karl, the founder of Marxism, says patriarchal males think that women and children are assets that need to be misused. Freidrich Engels’ says that woman’s discrimination arises from masculine gentlemen and therefore supports ladies to be recruited by companies.

Liberalism has deficiencies in respecting motherhood and a customary family, referring to this as a problem to profits that can be made. In America, Liberalism includes matters like same-gender marriages, transgender privileges, capital punishment abolition, females’ rights, polling rights for all mature residents, and administration protection of sufficient living standard privileges (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). Liberals have supported femininity and ethnicity equivalence in the struggle to support civil rights. Marxism believes more in communal change, while Liberalism focuses on an individual’s well-being. Liberals struggle to reach a country that gives its residents liberation but on the other hand, Marxists claim that the source of problems is the nation itself. Society will tire of the dictatorship when the government is the source of threats. The citizens will then rebel to defeat or make the government fall, giving better lives to folks who will survive. Liberalists argue that every human has the right to freedom and that the government should not deny anybody. At the same time, Marxists believe that the government should take total control over the citizens.

Marxists argue that the government should repossess all private belongings because this is according to the law. For example, in 1949, Mao Zedong, a Chinese Marxist elected to rule the country, formed a communist state and was named the People’s Republic of China (Nowak, 2022). The above example clearly indicates that the government took full control over the country without involving the citizens. This kind of leadership is among the main mechanisms Marxists have dreamed of achieving. Liberals, on the other hand, claim that a good citizen’s responsibility is to let the regime partially take some of a worker’s salary to promote a steady, communal organization.

Examples of stable and social structure include giving people quality education and providing foodstuff and other basic needs for the poor. This support will benefit the government because learned people will be employed, increasing productivity and maximum profits (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). The country’s economy will rise because every person will be involved in what each is best at doing. The argument on increased production from government support backs up the saying that a liberalist will always be happy when higher profits and production are made.

Names and Achievements of Individuals in Marxism and Liberalism

Karl Marx is a German theorist and the founder of Marxism who existed in the 19th century. Marx worked with radical ideas and was a known supporter of communism. The philosopher first published a communalist policy that later led to the foundation of Marxism (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). The philosopher had different influences on the administrative economy. Marx implemented an agenda used for examining communal, governmental, and profitable variations for a long duration. Marx explored the production and movement procedures of manufacturing entrepreneurship and articulated a theory of value used to study the misuse of workers by employers. Marx founded the methods applied by business people to increase surplus production and the purpose of the price system in reallocating the extra value to the firms. The theorist investigated the development sequences in capitalist communities. Marx made people understand that for production and profits to be high, everybody should put in extra effort. The philosopher put in place agreements that for a business to make profits and increase productivity, every citizen should be committed and serious when carrying out an activity. The theorists believes that peace can only be attained through battles between social groups.

A political philosopher known as John Locke was the founder of Liberalism. Despite being a medical expert, Locke was a committed believer in practical methods of scientific rebellion. The philosopher is politically described as a follower of a restricted regime (Bolton & Pitts, 2020). The philosopher is among the most famous political influencer in the current world. The Liberalist safeguarded the claims that human beings naturally have freedom and are equal despite beliefs that all folks are subjective to a sovereign by nature. John said that citizens have rights to life, independence, and possessions that have basics free from the commandments of any certain humanity, and nobody should be denied to enjoy such privileges. The philosopher educated people that managements exist because of the citizens’ permission or elections to guard rights and support the goodness of the people. The residents are free to demonstrate and replace governments that fail to protect the people.

Locke is important in defending revolt rights, the principle of common rule, and the separation of judicial and managerial supremacies. The philosopher uses a theory of a normal right to demonstrate that a manager has obligations to the people and, thus, does not have all powers over the citizens (Harrison & Boyd, 2018). Locke’s theory of treating property is seen as one of the philosopher’s main aids in politics but has been seriously condemned. The theorist added that the government could be removed from leadership by the public due to some misconduct, such as discrimination and dictatorship. Locke is defined as a guardian of free entrepreneurial growth by Macpherson John was alongside other ideologists who supported Liberalism like Voltaire. The theorist encouraged the opinion that punishments should not surpass the type of misconduct done. The opinion was discussed by the government with the involvement of some citizens and was passed into law. The public members can then demonstrate if the government goes against the agreement.

The philosopher condemned capital sentences and remedies for agony. The theorist said that judgments should be honestly selected on the origin of value and not on the cause of the societal source (Nowak, 2022). Other supporters of Liberalism include John Trenchard, Charles de Montesquieu, and Thomas Gordon, among others and all individuals believed that every citizen has the right to freedom. The philosophers believed that the government should be the key provider of freedom and that the public should be allowed to participate in activities that can improve the country’s productivity leading to increased profits. The philosophers believe that every citizen should leave a free life and the government should improvise ways to ensure that people who ruin such laws are prosecuted.

A Table Comparing between John Locke’s And Karl Marx’s Achievements

Locke was the founder of Liberalism while Marx was the originator of Marxism. According to the research done, Locke’s attainments are better compared to those of Marx as illustrated in the table below (Harrison & Boyd, 2018).

John Locke for Liberalism Karl Marx for Marxism
  • Puts more concerns about communal change.
  • Endorses democracy through organizations.
  • Encourages generosity in leadership despite wealth status.
  • Cheers to unrestricted trade by forming global financial groups and worldwide commercial strategies.
  • Believes in attaining universal integrity through voluntary global legal organizations which use the rule of law.
  • Urges the government to ensure that all people get state information at the right time.
  • Always gets happy when productivity is increased and profits maximized by people in a state.
  • Believes that a good citizen’s responsibility is to let the regime partially take some of a worker’s salary to promote a steady, communal organization.
  • Struggles to ensure that the government gives freedom to the residents.
  • Concentrates more on the radical economy.
  • Emphasizes more on the need for equality and argues that human beings should be assured of intelligence and economic liberty.
  • Supports equality between the rich and the poor.
  • Focused on an individual’s well-being and progress.
  • Opposes the creation of associations that promote personal privileges.
  • Believes that the rich possess leadership qualifications than the poor.
  • Concentrates on defending economic monopoly by the rich.
  • Believes in accomplishing resolutions to geopolitical struggles through radical and marital conflicts.
  • Does not support the public to be reached out by vital information from the government.
  • Does not show concerns about increasing profits and production.
  • Argue that the government should repossess all private belongings.
  • Argues that problems faced by people arise from the government and should be resolved through conflicts.
  • Emphasizes more on monetary matters and profit maximization.
  • Claims that rules and regulations should be used to control by the application of economic force.
  • Believes that the rich should be granted many leadership positions than the poor.


Liberalism is an ideology that ensures that the government offers full freedom to individuals. Marxism, on the other hand, is a concept used to illustrate the outcome of tussles that occur between two or more social groups. Marxism believes that the government should repossess all private property owned by the public. On the other hand, Liberalism believes that the government should take a small portion of workers’ salaries to improve the country’s economy hence improving productivity and profits. Liberals believe that the government should be in the first line to ensure citizens’ freedom, while Marxists argue that peace should be obtained through conflicts and struggles among social groups. Citizens of states that support Liberalism are sure of enjoying freedom and independence because the government can implement ways of safeguarding the liberty of the residents. People in nations that support Marxism do not fully enjoy human rights because the government takes full control over the citizens. The poor are discriminated against, while the rich are highly privileged. In comparison, Liberalism is better because this favors society compared to Marxism.


Bolton, M., & Pitts, F. H. (2020). Liberalism and critical Marxism: A reply to Glassman and Rutherford. British Politics, 15(1), 120-133. Web.

Harrison, K., & Boyd, T. (2018). Liberalism. In Understanding political ideas and movements (pp. 195-213). Manchester University Press. Web.

Nowak, L. (2022). Marxism versus Liberalism: A Certain Paradox. In New Developments in the Theory of the Historical Process (pp. 106-118). Brill. Web.

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