Somalia is located on the peninsula of the same name in eastern Africa. Today, this word has become a household, meaning ruin and lawlessness. Somalia has been subjected to political and climatic upheavals for many years. Regardless of the situation in the country, children need to acquire knowledge and have access to a minimum education. However, due to the coronavirus pandemic, the situation in schools has become even worse. As the number of people infected with the coronavirus grew, schools had to close their doors to all students. There is no good Internet access in Somalia, and citizens do not have electronic devices to provide children with decent education at home. Consequently, after the closure of schools, families faced a lot of problems. Adults faced a sudden loss of jobs and money, and children lost affordable education. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate and determine which approach will improve the situation.
The mission of the UNICEF foundation was to provide assistance to all children in need living in temporarily formed refugee camps or destroyed cities in the post-war period. According to conservative estimates, their number reached about twenty million children. In the first three years of its activity, UNICEF was able to do huge charitable work (Stremlau, 2018). Clothing was distributed to about five million children and mothers in 12 countries, eight million children were vaccinated against tuberculosis, and dairy production was restored (Ismail, 2019). Working closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund promoted the development of food with an unusually rich protein composition for certain areas for which dairy products were unavailable (Eby et al., 2019). In addition, special attention was paid to the cultivation of soybeans. The priority tasks of UNICEF have always been to ensure the development of children from early childhood, children who have special physical development, the prevention and prevention of diseases, and the protection of children’s rights.
The Accountable Parties
The accountable parties in the case study are the World Food Programme, the UN Development Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Organization for Migration. First of all, the choice of these responsible parties is determined by the fact that these organizations helped UNICEF establish suitable conditions for studying in a Somali school. Moreover, they provided access to television, distance learning, and the Internet. As a result, the students were able to continue their studies, despite the quarantine and the absence of full-time classes at school.
The Way the Government May Hurt or Serve the Public Interest
Cases when the government, wanting to help, caused tangible harm are common. Moreover, there are a number of laws that, on the one hand, can be considered as a restriction of freedom – such laws are called paternalism. Legal paternalism can be of different types, for example, rigid paternalism supports laws that prohibit or force individuals to make certain choices. Soft paternalism leaves free space for choice, but uses violence more subtly, manipulating an individual’s behavior through propaganda by encouraging or condemning decisions that can be expressed in the form of subsidies and taxes or creating obstacles to voluntary actions (Yalahow et al., 2017). The requirement to purchase a license or pass a waiting period before taking certain actions. For example, laws prohibiting certain fatty foods are justified by concern for human health and are designed to protect them from imprudent dietary preferences (Metzler et al., 2021). Thus, such an approach can cause a certain moral dilemma. An example of how the state serves the public interest can be providing benefits and material payments. For instance, during the coronavirus pandemic, the income level of the entire US population decreased. Therefore, the government decided to pay a certain amount of money to all citizens.
The Rational Planning
A rational approach inspires managers of different levels to strategic thinking, creativity, and initiative. It has an objective character: development goals become clear and defined, the effectiveness of monitoring the solution of tasks increases that reflect the attractiveness of a particular strategy for the company (Xiao, Xie, 2021). In conditions of certainty of goals, objectives, and indicators, the influence of subjectivity of judgments in evaluating strategies is minimized. At the same time, many authors point to the significant shortcomings of the rational model associated with its practical implementation (Callaway et al., 2018). These judgments are supported by empirical studies that confirm that a rational approach to strategic planning does not always ensure the company’s successful development.
In the described case with a school in Somalia, a rational approach may be unprofitable. First of all, it should be noted that the planning process is cyclical based on a rational model: as a rule, the formation and revision of the strategic plan are carried out on an annual basis. In a dynamic external environment, this means the inviolability of the planned prerequisites, at least throughout the year. As a result, if external conditions change in the middle of the planning period, the company does not make changes to its corporate strategy, but continues to follow the previously planned course, which is based on prerequisites that have already lost their relevance.
Advantages and Disadvantages
The method of incremental approach is quite common in modern enterprises. This can be explained by its simplicity and accessibility for managers of various qualifications (Jing et al., 2017). Step-by-step planning is similar to planning by the method of key events. We can even say that a phased plan is an improved, detailed plan of key events. The incremental approach includes several dates through a specific time interval. One of the advantages of this type of planning is its feature, which allows you to organize the management process in such a way that at the end of each stage, a report is compiled on the degree of implementation of planned events (Xie, Qin, 2018). The advantages of step-by-step planning include the fact that there is enough time available for adjustments and the negative effects that occurred at the beginning are not critical. Moreover, due to the phased implementation, it is easier to get used to the changes. The disadvantages of this system include the fact that it is unclear what the final result will be at the stage of implementation of the plan (Yun et al., 2019). Moreover, during the implementation process, you need to adjust the outcome of each step.
Incremental Approach in Somalia
In the case of the school in Somalia, a step-by-step approach was needed, as it provides timely assistance and improvement of the situation as problems arise. Moreover, with a step-by-step process, the conversion is performed in stages. Implementation requires a carefully thought-out scenario for starting using a new system. And at each stage, you need to instruct employees and other users. Thus, the old system is taken over by the new system in predetermined steps until it is completely filled.
By way of conclusion, the paper identifies and describes the main problem. In the course of the work, the plight of schools in Somalia was investigated. The paper also presents cases of the negative influence of the government. In addition, there is a list of the assistance provided by UNICEF. Moreover, two planning systems are described, their pros and cons are listed. The above follows that the approach to planning should be chosen based on the specific situation.
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