Political Transformations in the UK

Topic: Public Policies
Words: 9534 Pages: 4


Abstract of a dissertation entitled “Adoption of Integrated Review Approach Can Strengthen Security” submitted by Your Name for BSc (Hons.) in Emergency & Crisis Management at the University of Central Lancashire in 2022.

Currently, the UK is undergoing the most fundamental changes in politics, security, and strategic planning. It is well known that the Government of the United Kingdom has relatively recently documented some requirements, principles, and concepts concerning the internal defense and security of the country and its citizens. Thus, this study aims at a holistic, comprehensive, and thorough review of “security, defence, development and foreign policy” in the UK. In analyzing such aspects, the author seeks to give an accurate and objective answer to the question of how and in what manner organized crime and disasters are connected. Moreover, in this context, the researcher appeals to whether other countries should consider a more “joined up” approach to urgent problems?

In this case, it is necessary to test the hypothesis that internal changes in the UK fundamentally allow achieving the most effective and efficient results and adapting to rapidly changing conditions on the world stage. This research used different types of investigation methods and ways to support the outcomes; those methods included books, journals, newspapers, and many other forms. In addition, the information received was carefully analyzed, compared, and generalized based on deductive and inductive methods of cognition. Hence, the study results demonstrated the intended effect, and to each of the questions posed, a positive answer can be given to one degree or another.

Therefore, various external and internal disasters, catastrophes, troubles, and criminal activity are closely interrelated. The results demonstrate that each of the elements complements each other. In the light of current events and the dynamics of rapidly changing trends, the UK continues to actively support policies aimed at minimizing and eradicating these “ailments” through a “unified approach” and integration of some processes. Moreover, such tactics, methods, and strategies are suitable only in isolated cases but not for every country.

General Introduction


The UK released a much-anticipated white paper in March, titled Global Britain. This was the first Integrated Review of defence and security to include elements such as organized crime and domestic issues as well as foreign policy. The paper was delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic and contains a strategic framework to guide the UK in the post-Brexit era and ensure it maintains its global political position as well as preparing it to tackle the foreign and domestic issues that it will face over the next decade. This Integrated Review is in fact a major policy paper that will have a lasting impact on Britain and its global position in the years to come.

 Global Britain Policy Paper
Figure 1: Global Britain Policy Paper

This review is very similar the other British policy papers of the 21st century, with the key distinction being the integration of strategic factors that have traditionally been handled separately. This review has been met with both criticism and praise, and the future that is laid out for a Britain that is globally competitive economically, diplomatically, technologically and militarily has been put under scrutiny. This paper will explore the extent to which this review addresses the issues that are faced by the UK and its unique global position in the world and speculate on the effectiveness and usefulness of integrating what had been in the past would have been entirely separate. The UK is a global power and an active player with influence in every major multilateral organization.

Global Britain Policy Paper
Figure 2: Global Britain Policy Paper

Research Context

This investigation concerns the study, research, analysis, and evaluation of internal political transformations and changes within British society, the state, and the political system. In the light of such large-scale events as the COVID-19 pandemic and Brexit, the country’s leaders have taken radical measures to improve the welfare of the people in the field of security, support, and preservation of life, health, opportunities, and human rights.

The new strategy defense international priorities and threats to the security of the UK after leaving the European Union until 2030. It is noted that the country is entering a new era of “great power competition,” which will get even greater scale after the pandemic. The document focuses on four areas of British foreign policy: the role in forming a new world order (the “force of good”), contribution to ensuring Euro-Atlantic security, and strengthening the kingdom’s position in the Indo-Pacific region, as well as countering modern transnational threats. In one form or another, all these theses have already appeared in official statements and documents after the 2016 referendum on Britain’s membership in the EU. Although it introduces several clarifications, the new strategy hardly makes the concept of “Global Britain” more understandable and filled with factual content. Accordingly, there is also a need to focus on these aspects.

Project Aim & Objectives

The goals and objectives of this dissertation project were to study various aspects regarding innovations by the UK administration within the framework of ensuring security, stability, and resilience in connection with specific shocks. Moreover, there was a particular need to determine and evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken by the Government of the United Kingdom on other countries. For the most part, this intention was to assess the essence, nature, significance, importance, and role of state strategies.

The main aim of the paper was therefore:

  • To determine the overall effectiveness of the new Integrated approach and provide recommendations as to whether this model should be adopted by other nations.

In order to achieve this, the following objectives were identified:

  • To analyze the contents of the Integrated Review and provide an overview of the main principles and ideas presented.
  • To evaluate and analyze the information contained within the report in light of the critiques and assessments found in the literature on the white paper.
  • To determine to what extent this review addresses Britain’s domestic and foreign policy challenges, and the impact it’s integrated nature will have on outcomes.
  • To speculate on the usefulness of this model in developing strategic frameworks and whether or not it could be successfully applied by other nations.
  • To conduct qualitative research study consisting of a survey presented to senior Qatari officials developed based on the Literature Review in order to strengthen our determination regarding adoption of an Integrated Approach to defence review.


The main focus of this report will be the integrated nature of this review, and the impact that integration has on foreign policy and international cooperation, security and defense, soft power and economic development as well as technological innovation and modernization. While some of the literature focuses on technical elements associated with these factors, this report seeks to examine the high-level elements associate with integration and the technical aspects will be considered outside the scope of this report. Consequently, the investigation and examination of integration processes in general terms does not fit into the framework of this paper without revealing particular details that could help conduct a holistic analysis of British politics. In addition, the author omits such moments as the characteristics of technical elements and components related to the causes of changes.

Project Outline

This study displays an understanding and a holistic picture of the situation through different chapters in order to provide a reader with convenience and comfort when reading.

The first chapter of this research contains a general introduction, including an overview of the study. Chapter two is the literature review analysis from experts that reveal the true meaning of some of the subtleties of the strategy presented in the review. Other nations’ reactions to the examination contents from an intelligence and foreign policy standpoint are relevant to the research and were considered. Furthermore, domestic and popular responses to the white paper and musings regarding its reception were evaluated. Finally, criticisms and critiques of the integrated review and the framework contained therein were assessed and addressed. In order to be able to answer better whether other nations should adopt this type of approach, the author surveyed five senior Qatari officials who are directly involved in Defence & Security, either in the Armed Forces or Department of Defence. Chapter three is the research results chapter, where the outcome of this research will be shown. The final chapter is chapter four, consisting of the conclusions and recommendations.

The study results revealed the importance of making quick and prompt decisions regarding the integration of a number of internal elements within British society and the state. At least, these procedures give the country unique advantages on the way to success, prosperity, well-being, and taking leadership positions among “colleagues” and “opponents” on the globe. However, “borrowing” these principles is essential and necessary, but only under certain conditions and in accordance with the availability of special requirements. The UK’s policy aims to preserve its independence by strengthening its influence and maintaining strong ties with the countries of the West and East. In fact, London plans to deter and defend itself from all threats from Moscow, including through NATO. The United States is called the most important partner of the UK, and the documents mention plans for cooperation with China and Qatar in trade and investment. As part of the UK government’s new strategy, the digital sphere will play a more critical role in defence, foreign, and security policy. The country will strive to become a “responsible democratic cyber force.”

Literature Review


The relevant literature includes not only the white paper itself, but also analysis from experts that reveal the true meaning of some of the subtleties of the strategy presented in the review. Other nation’s reactions to the contents of the review from an intelligence and foreign policy standpoint are also relevant to the research and will be considered. Furthermore, domestic and popular reactions to the white paper and musings regarding its reception will be considered. Finally, criticisms and critiques of the integrated review and the framework contained therein will be considered and addressed.

The world is changing at such a rapid pace that even as individuals we can sometimes feel like we are lagging behind the constantly evolving and developing technological and strategic developments and advancements. The scope of the changes brought about by the technological revolution of the late 20th and early 21st centuries has been staggering, and it has changed just about every aspect of how we live our lives and conduct our businesses. The impact that it has had and continues to have on security and defence is significant, as since the World Wars, military technology has often been the forefront of innovation and technological advancement. Perhaps the most significant defining element in this review is the integrated nature of the report and the way in which it connects internal and international security as well as combining innovative and traditional foreign policy considerations and strategies.

Defence & Security

The UK’s biggest ally and security partner is the United States, which is affirmed throughout the review. The UK also maintains its commitment to NATO and the bi-lateral defence agreements and security cooperation that is the goal of the organization. The UK also emphasizes its commitment to maintaining security of its partners internationally both through training and advising their armed forces, but also with the presence of British troops on the ground. This is an extension of its current security arrangements in areas such as East Africa and West Asia. The UK is currently training a group of soldiers with help from the United States to be the British equivalent of the American Green Berets, which will be deployed to assist in training and as advisors to the armed forces of international partners in conflict zones and non-permissible environments.

A major aspect of the integration when it comes to security is a combined framework for dealing with international security concerns and domestic security threats. This is particularly important as the nature of warfare and war fighting has continued to develop. The UKs adversaries now include terrorist organizations such as ISIL that are loose networks of individuals that are driven by extremist ideology. As Britain continues to fight against international terror globally, it must maintain security against such attacks at home, whether they are Islamist-related or Northern Ireland related terrorism. The UKs commitment to international security and combating ISILand other terror groups makes it a target for terrorist attacks plotted both by ISIL and by their sympathizers. In the same way, countering organized crime within the UK is also integrated into the Defence and Security framework.

Carnagie Endowment for International Peace
Figure 3: Carnagie Endowment for International Peace

The United Kingdom recognizes that the threats faced by terror groups and organized crime can overwhelm domestic police forces, which are not equipped or trained adequately to face these types of threats. By integrating these considerations into the Defence & Security review, the military expertise that the UK has gained in the international theatre facing these groups can be leveraged to improve the UK’s domestic security.

Another major focus of the integrated review when it comes to defence and security is the modernization of the armed forces. The United Kingdom’s military force is to become less personnel intensive and more technologically advanced as per the framework set out in the white paper. The armed forces are going to be reduced by 10,000 servicemen, which will bring the UKs military to its smallest size in terms of personnel in the past two centuries. Many of the equipment acquisition plans that had already been put into place have been cancelled, and a great number of the military vehicles currently in service will be retired. However, despite these reductions in personnel and equipment retirements, the UK will aim to increase its military capabilities through technological innovations. In this Integrates review, the Ministry of Defence has pledged an extra 24 billion pounds over the next five years, the first increase in defence spending in several years.

Figure 4: Statista.com

Modernizing the armed forces and incorporating drones and AI technology wherever possible will make the military less human-resource intensive and more efficient. Furthermore, the United Kingdom will be increasing their arsenal of nuclear warheads for the first time since the Cold War as the “ultimate guarantee to our security”. Another area of focus when it comes to security is cyber-security, and the UK has been investing heavily in improving its cyberspace security capabilities and defend against attacks by threat actors, both state-sponsored and otherwise. Cyberattacks on essential/critical infrastructure aimed at disruption and in order to steal sensitive information are increasingly becoming a part of modern war fighting, and the UK has faced these attacks in recent years which contributed to inclusion of cyberspace as a security domain within this review and as a part of military strategy as a whole. Another domain in which the UK is extending its military capabilities is space. The white paper re-affirms commitment to ongoing projects to manufacture and launch satellites into orbit both for communications and military purposes.

The National
Figure 5: The National

In line with the overall theme of integration that this white paper is guided by, the UK aims to integrate the military domains and develop a unified strategy across all theatres. Through integration of the five domains: land, air, sea, space and cyberspace, the UK aims to create a comprehensive framework for achieving its security and defence objectives internationally and domestically while navigating the various challenges and obstacles that arise. Global Britain as a concept is reminiscent of the times in which the UK projected its power much farther and more vocally than it has since the World Wars.

Foreign Policy

The white paper presents Russia as the most acute threat to the UK and its allies. Countering Russian influence and controlling Russian soft-expansion into Eastern Europe is a major foreign policy consideration for the United Kingdom in years to come. These foreign policy goals are in line with the United States’ objectives in countering Russia, which feel reminiscent of Cold War sentiments. In fact, the UKs increase to their nuclear warhead arsenal may have Russia specifically in mind. However, some critics of the Integrated Review and some of the declared principles have asserted that the UKs apparent “tough on Russia” stance is little more than posturing, as it’s movement away from the EU in Brexit distances it from European allies who are more directly involved with countering Russian influence in the region. Furthermore, the UK is criticized for being too passive in supporting Ukraine alongside other European powers.

Without specifically focusing on Brexit, many critics from other European countries have voiced their concern with the EU being almost entirely absent from this Integrated Review. In discussions of Europe throughout the paper, the focus is on NATO and bi-lateral relations, as opposed to with the EU as a whole. This is perceived by critics to be an oversight, and has been described as an “EU-shaped hole in the Integrated Review”. While this certainly can be understood to be cause for concern from a European perspective, it is in line with the British objectives of growing their global influence and power, which may be somewhat diminished, even if just as a perception, by being led by the European Union as opposed to being firmly independent while maintaining strong ties to Europe.

The other major foreign policy consideration for the UK is China and its growing power and influence. Chinese strength, both military and economic is a major cause for concern and will require cautiously evaluation and reevaluation of Sino-British relations on an ongoing basis. As stated in the review, the UK must maintain its economic relationship with China, and continue to have cautious and reserved bi-lateral relations, while maintaining its position on key issues such as allegiance to the United States and acting in accordance with US interested and boycotting certain Chinese products from Xinjiang where there is suspicion of slave labour.

Analysts have described a major foreign policy theme of this integrated review as the “Indo-Pacific Tilt”, in which the UK will be much more active in Central and East Asia, both economically and diplomatically, but also militarily as needed. Growing British influence in the Indo-Pacific region is a major policy goal for the UK, as it will better enable them to counter China and Russia if needed and give a boost to their economy that could perhaps come at the expense of China’s share in certain markets. Notably, this Integrated Review did neglect the Middle East and there was little mention of the UKs allies there, particularly in the Gulf Region. While the UK in previous strategy papers had mentioned it’s Gulf partners as a part of its strategy, any such mentions were absent from this review, indicating a shift eastward in terms of the expansion of British influence.


The economic strategy that is put forward is one of investment driven growth. The United Kingdom aims to improve its economy through investment in the STEM fields and new immigration schemes to attract the world’s best and brightest. It is an economic vision that is driven by investment in promising emerging and nascent technology and modernizing infrastructure with sustainability and countering climate change in mind. The economic objectives and the means through which these objectives will be achieved resonate as both authentic and genuine, according to Sir Simon Fraser. It is clear in the policy put forward that the UK is interested in long-term sustained economic growth and is willing to sacrifice short-term economic factors in favour of future economic strength. The UK is currently the world’s 5th largest economy, and a leader in many technological fields that will be of extreme importance in implementing the economic strategy put forward in this Integrated Review. Some critics of the review have said that this policy paper was “narcissistic”, and even proponents described the UKs assessment of its capabilities as “hyperbolic”, asserting and affirming its strengths and how it intends to leverage them is a winning strategy and will ensure that these objectives are followed up on much more consistently than if they were undeclared.

Strategic Framework

The Strategic Framework that is presented in this Integrated Review strongly emphasizes leveraging the UKs Science and Technology capabilities to their fullest potential in order to assist in other areas, while continuing to invest in these sectors to ensure the development and growth are sustained. The Integrated Review presents this as the winning formula to becoming the “Global Britain” that is presented in the white paper. There are two main stated objectives of this strategic framework. The first stated goal is to grow the UK’s Science and Technology power in pursuit of a strategic advantage. This is no easy task, and to quote the white paper directly: “Achieving this objective requires a whole-of-UK effort, in which the Government’s primary role is to create the enabling environment for a thriving S&T ecosystem of scientists, researchers, inventors and innovators, across academia, the private sector, regulators and standards bodies, working alongside the manufacturing base to take innovations through to markets. It also requires strategic choices and decisions by the Government, both on S&T priorities and on how we use our national S&T capability in support of wider policy goals – from net zero through to economic growth.”. This comprehensive approach to developing a science- and technology-based strategic advantage is comprehensive and thorough, but will require tremendous dedication, investment and effort.

The second stated goal in the strategic framework is to grow and develop the UK’s existing cyberspace and cyber technology capabilities in pursuit of British goals. The white paper asserts: “The cyber domain is unique in that it is man-made, subject to rapid technological change, and at an early stage in the evolution of its rules and norms; all of which combine to create enormous opportunity and risk. Over the past decade we have established the UK as a cyber power, building cutting-edge defensive and offensive cyber capabilities, and a leading cyber security sector. In the digital age, sustaining this competitive edge in cyber will be a fundamental component of strategic advantage through S&T.”. Cyberspace being integrated as a domain of conflict and its influence on warfighting is in-line with the Security and Defence objectives presented in the review as well.



Through our literature review we identified that the Integrated Defence Review is a solid and well-founded strategy that will position the United Kingdom favorably on the world stage and enable it to achieve its foreign policy and domestic security goals. The Global Britain that is envisioned in the policy paper is well within reach, and the strategic framework put forward by the Integrated Review paints a clear path towards it. In order to determine whether an integration approach to defence review should be adopted by other nations, we will conduct a survey among officials in the defence and security field in Qatar and generalize our findings to other nations based on their similarities and differences. Qatar is very different from the UK in many aspects, such as size, geography, demographics, region, culture and many more. Despite these extensive differences, there are many similarities that are relevant to defence and security, such as foreign policy goals and strategic partnerships. Our research aims to uncover perspectives regarding Qatari defence and security that are directly related to the observations we made in our literature review.

Research Rationale

Qatar is an excellent country to focus this research on. There are many aspects of Qatari government and policy that are based on British models. Despite the differences between the United Kingdom and Qatar, there are countless similarities and specific details regarding the contents of the policy that make Qatar a good candidate country for this research. The differences and similarities between the UK and Qatar will make for an interesting comparison, and will bring to light the details regarding many issues that will serve the overall purpose of our research.

Research Methodology

The goals of this research are best served by adopting a qualitative research approach. We wish to uncover information and insights regarding matters that may have been overlooked but are also looking for specific and precise information. Also, due to the nature of the positions of the officials that will be surveyed, we wanted to make sure that the survey was succinct, concise and focused while still enabling make use of all the information that is offered by the participants. In order to achieve this, five participants will be asked to complete a brief questionnaire consisting of five questions that are directly related to the United Kingdom’s new policy paper. Participants will be asked general questions in which they will be asked to choose one of three rankings as a response, and an optional section to include any other comments they wish to offer. Our choice to include a simple response system of choosing one of three responses was chosen in order to ensure that our participants are not inconvenienced by lengthy questions or questions requiring a lengthy response. By including a section for comments, we can ensure that any relevant information that our respondents would like to offer is collected and included in our research.

Developing Questionnaire

The main purpose of the questionnaire is to determine the relevance or perceived usefulness of integration by Qatari Defence and Security officials.

  • The first question that will be asked is regarding the integration of the review of domestic defence and security concerns and foreign policy. The question that will be presented to respondents is “How would you describe the relationship between foreign policy and domestic security threats?”, and they will be given three responses to choose from.

For this questions, the three choices will be “Strong Relationship”, “Weak Relationship” and “No Relationship”. While it is true that these responses are somewhat narrow and potentially restrictive, the inclusion of the comments section will allow for a custom response or further elaboration by the participants.

  • The second question in the questionnaire is “Should the review of domestic security and foreign policy be integrated in defence review?”, which will follow up on the first question and allow us to put together better developed answers to our research question.

For this question, the available responses are “Strongly Integrated”, “Somewhat Integrated” and “Not Integrated”. As with the other questions, respondents will have the option to include any comments that they deem to be relevant to the question. By combining the participants’ responses from the first two questions, we hope to develop a nuanced answer regarding the need for and potential benefit of adoption of a security review approach that includes both foreign policy and domestic security considerations.

  • The third question related to economic factors, and as the economic considerations made by the UK as part of their Integrated Review were significant and extensive, the question was phrased as “To what extent are economic factors relevant to defence and security review?”

Possible responses being “Very Relevant”, “Somewhat Relevant” and “Not Relevant”. Depending on the responses, a determination will be made regarding the relevance of economic considerations to Qatar when it conducts security and defence reviews. One of the ways in which Qatar differs greatly from the United Kingdom are economic factors. While the United Kingdom has a much larger and diverse economy, Qatar’s economy is smaller in scope and breadth, and focuses heavily on the Oil and Gas sector. As a result, Qatar’s economy could be more susceptible to potential disruption than the United Kingdom. On the other hand, Qatar’s relative size and budget compared to its overall economy might mean that economic considerations are less relevant than they would be for Great Britain. Interpreting the data from responses to this question and considering the information included in the comments will help to reduce the uncertainty regarding the significance of these factors and assist in determining whether the joined-up approach is suitable for Qatar and other like nations, or whether integration of economic considerations into defence policy is something only applicable to bigger nations with larger economies, populations and militaries.

The fourth and fifth questions relate directly to the strategic framework presented in the policy paper.

  • The fourth question is in regard to investment in Science and Technology, which according to the Integrated Review is one of the key focuses of the United Kingdom’s upcoming investment strategy. The fourth question is phrased “How are investments in Science and Technology related to our national strategy to improve defence?”
  • and the fifth question is phrased “How is developing our cyber-capabilities related to our national defence strategy?”

The available choices for the responses to both questions are: “Strongly Related”, “Somewhat Related”, and “Not Related”. These two questions aim to uncover perspectives regarding cyber-capabilities and investments in science and technology, two integral components of the Strategic Framework put forth in the Integrated Review. Based on the responses of the participants, a more accurate assessment of the applicability of these aspects of the Strategic Framework can be achieved.

Research Results

The results of the research are simple to interpret, and we will detail the responses of each participant as well as reviewing any comments that were included alongside their answers. One of the reasons for having an odd number of survey participants is so that results are less ambiguous, and majority can be established in the event of alternative perspectives or differing points of view.

The projected results for the survey are that most respondents will agree that the issues presented, namely the relationship between foreign policy and domestic security, the effect of economic factors on security and defence, and the strategic framework of investment into Science and Technology and Cyber capabilities will be deemed to be highly inter-related and the benefits of integration will be apparent. This expectation arises from the literature review, including the comments of United Kingdom officials as well as policy analysts.

The benefits of adopting this approach for the United Kingdom are apparent, but the opinions and perspectives of officials directly involved in developing or executing Qatari security and defence policies will present a strong case for adoption of this joined up approach to national security and defence.

Summary of Results & Presentation of Findings

Below will be included a brief summary of the results of the survey alongside the comments, divided by each individual participant.

Participant 1

How would you describe the relationship between foreign policy and domestic security threats? Strong Relationship

Comments: Foreign policy and how we deal with our allies, partners and adversaries is very important to ensuring our security here in Qatar. By having strong diplomatic ties around the world and always acting in good faith and serving as a neutral party and arbitrating when needed, Qatar can protect itself against threats by foreign actors.

Should the review of domestic security and foreign policy be integrated in defence review? Somewhat Integrated

Comments: There are definitely areas in which the two strongly overlap and there can be benefits from integration.

To what extent are economic factors relevant to reviews of defence & security? Somewhat Relevant

Comments: The safety and security of Qatar’s people and our guests is priceless. While economic factors are undoubtedly an important part of our assessments in general, peace and the safety and security of our people is always our number one priority, and we will invest in the best technologies and systems to ensure this, no matter the cost.

How are investments in Science and Technology related to our strategy to improve defence? Strongly Related

Comments: Investing in science and technology is what will create a stronger and more prosperous generation. Our youth need to receive the best education, and a major component in that education is science and technology. Our investments into procuring the best systems, curriculums and educators, as well as investing in Qatari scientific institutes is part of our long-term defence strategy. In terms of national defence, we continue to invest in the best available hardware for our armed forces, preparing them to deal with all threats they could face with the best hardware and systems.

How is developing our cyberspace capabilities related to our national defence strategy? Somewhat Related

Comments: Cyber-attacks can have very big impacts on Qatari society, as individuals and as a collective. Cyber-attacks can damage our infrastructure or compromise sensitive information, so it is important to develop our defensive capabilities to protect against this.

Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The First Participant
Figure 6: Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The First Participant

Participant 2

How would you describe the relationship between foreign policy and domestic security threats? Strong Relationship

Comments: Foreign policy needs to be balanced and be guided by strong vision. It is one of the most relevant factors to domestic security.

Should the review of domestic security and foreign policy be integrated in defence review? Strongly Integrated

Comments: These two elements are strongly integrated when it comes to our defence strategy. We are always calculating how foreign policy decisions and actions can impact internal security.

To what extent are economic factors relevant to reviews of defence & security? Very Relevant

Comments: Economic factors are a major component of our security and defence. In order to be strong we need a strong economy, and any negative impact on our economy will compromise our security.

How are investments in Science and Technology related to our strategy to improve defence? Strongly Related

Comments: Science is a major part of developing our society. The technology we have today is recent and has improved our lives and made us safer and more secure. We are always seeking new and better technologies to improve our defence and security.

How is developing our cyberspace capabilities related to our national defence strategy? Strongly Related

Comments: Cyberspace capabilities are a big part of ensuring we are safe. Internet use is growing and so are smart technologies that can be hacked. We need to build strong defences for our cyberspace just like we do all of our territory.

Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The Second Participant
Figure 7: Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The Second Participant

Participant 3

How would you describe the relationship between foreign policy and domestic security threats? Strong Relationship

Comments: Terrorist threats and attacks, war, sanctions, trade partnerships, all are related.

Should the review of domestic security and foreign policy be integrated in defencereview? Strongly Integrated

Comments: Yes. Strong integration.

To what extent are economic factors relevant to reviews of defence & security? Very Relevant

How are investments in Science and Technology related to our strategy to improve defence? Strongly Related

How is developing our cyberspace capabilities related to our national defence strategy? Strongly Related

Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The Third Participant
Figure 8: Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The Third Participant

Participant 4

How would you describe the relationship between foreign policy and domestic security threats? Strong Relationship

Comments: Not only how Qatar acts, but also its allies have a strong effect on the Qatari domestic security. If we think about the terror attacks on our partners in the UK and the US, especially 9/11, the relationship between foreign policy can be clearly seen. Qatar’s position in the GCC could result in Qatar being targeted by attacks from militant groups like the Houthi rebels who already attacked our allies in Saudi Arabia and in the UAE. Qatar’s strong partnership with the United States and hosting US militaryon Qatari soil could also be a reason that we would be targeted by terror groups such as IS and AQ. While Qatari policy should not be changed due to these risks, understanding their nature can make us more prepared to predict them and deal with them.

Should the review of domestic security and foreign policy be integrated in defence review? Strongly Integrated

Comments: There is no doubt that a component of defence review is foreign policy, and this is the case for all countries. Our leadership is committed to ensuring the safety of Qatar and our people, and all our domestic and foreign policies are focused primarily on that. Qatar is committed to building strong bi-lateral ties with the strongest nations and being involved in diplomatic and humanitarian efforts all around the world are a major reason for our success in making Qatar the safest and most stable country in the region.

To what extent are economic factors relevant to reviews of defence & security? Very Relevant

Comments: Economic factors are extremely important to our defence and security review. The Qatari economy is strongly reliant on natural gas and oil. Oil and LNG provide Qatar with the majority of our income. Terrorist attacks on Oil and gas assets could have a major impact on Qatar’s economy, and these types of attacks have already targeted our GCC allies. Qatar must be prepared to defend against attacks by Houthis or other terrorist groups on our vital infrastructure. Tourism is also a growing industry in Qatar and terror attacks on Qatari soil could have a negative effect on this sector. Defending against terror attacks on our soil or our vital assets compromising our natural resource extraction is at the heart of maintaining our economic prosperity.

How are investments in Science and Technology related to our strategy to improve defence? Strongly Related

Comments: The nature of the threats we face is always becoming more complex, in order to counter these threats we need to rely on upgrading and improving our science and technology. By investing in our scientific projects, we are always finding new ways to defend against novel threats. These investments can take many forms and are not always directly related to defence fields, but growing our science and technology in general will make as stronger and prepare us to deal with new problems.

How is developing our cyberspace capabilities related to our national defence strategy? Strongly Related

Comments: Some of the new threats that are mentioned above related to science and technology are cyber threats. There are many instances that important information was lost or compromised, or even major infrastructure like power grids and communications networks being compromised and taken offline. These types of threats can only be properly prepared for and addressed if we are working to develop our syberspace capability and training cyber intelligence offers, as well as partnering with the best cybersecurity firms in the world.

Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The Fourth Participant
Figure 9: Graphical Interpretation of The Answers of The Fourth Participant

Participant 5

How would you describe the relationship between foreign policy and domestic security threats? Strong Relationship

Should the review of domestic security and foreign policy be integrated in defence review? Strongly Integrated

To what extent are economic factors relevant to reviews of defence & security? Very Relevant

How are investments in Science and Technology related to our strategy to improve defence? Strongly Related

How is developing our cyberspace capabilities related to our national defence strategy? Strongly Related

Summary of the Answers
Figure 10: Summary of the Answers

Summary of Survey Results

An interpretation of the above survey results will follow, with analysis of the comments that are provided if any. We expect that the findings will follow with our projections, but in case there are major differences they will be explained and justified, the arguments developed from the literature review will be reviewed in order to make a final determination/recommendation.

The sentiments of the senior leaders surveyed strongly support the assessment that Qatar could benefit from adopting a UK-model integrated review of defence and security. The survey questions were presented in a manner that would encourage responses that were poignant and relevant to the research, without explicitly revealing that the UK Global Britain policy paper was the research focus. This approach was used in order to encourage the survey participants to provide broad high-level comments that could be useful in adding a perspective and insight to the research that may have been absent or overlooked in the literature review.

The results of the survey are resoundingly in support of the determination made through Literature review. No respondents indicated a weak relationship or that integration should not occur for any of the questions of the survey. This alone would make a strong case for the adoption of a joined-up approach to security, but the qualitative aspect of the research also provides numerous additional insights. All but one of the survey respondents left comments, which are extremely relevant to our literature review, strengthening our argument and providing legitimacy to the assessments and conclusions made herein. Some of the points discussed in the comments include details of economic threats face by Qatar, terrorism and organized crime challenges, as well as insights into Qatari investment and security review practices. The economic challenges associated with foreign policy and domestic security are touched upon, as well as mention of specific threats as they relate to Qatar.

Generalization of Qatar’s Results

In this sub sectionwe will speculate on how our analysis of whether Qatar should adopt an integrated approach to security review can be generalized to other nations in the region, primarily Qatar’s Gulf neighbours who share many of the same demographic and cultural characteristics. Additionally, countries with which Qatar shares population size and other common characteristics that would make this type of analysis relevant will be considered.

The sentiments of the senior leaders surveyed strongly support the assessment that Qatar could benefit from adopting a UK-model integrated review of defence and security. The survey questions were presented in a manner that would encourage responses that were poignant and relevant to the research, without explicitly revealing that the UK Global Britain policy paper was the research focus. This approach was used in order to encourage the survey participants to provide broad high-level comments that could be useful in adding a perspective and insight to the research that may have been absent or overlooked in the literature review. The determinations made and perspectives offered by the survey participants are useful in assessing Qatar’s position, but also that of other nations. This British model can be useful not only to Qatar, but many other nations that share characteristics with Qatar and Britain.

Primarily, nations that are aligned with British interests, including partnerships and alliances with the United States, can strongly benefit from this type of joined-up approach to defence review. Adoption of a strategic framework that is similar to the one put forward for Britain can help to achieve many of the same benefits that the UK is aiming for. Having similar reviews can ensure that cooperation between partners is strengthened, as a similar review will undoubtedly align perspectives on matters of significance and foster cooperation. Furthermore, the analysis put forward in this policy paper in regards to Russia, China, and the Pacific Tilt are extremely valuable in understanding the upcoming socio-economic order that is coming together and likely to persist for at least the 21st century (11). Building upon these insights and analyses will be of great benefit to British and American-aligned nations, as these considerations will equally be equally significant to them.

Other countries that these results could be generalized to are those within the Middle East and North Africa region. Due to the instability of various regimes in the region and ongoing armed conflicts, there is a heightened need for integration of foreign policy and domestic policy reviews. The ongoing war in Yemen, as well as the proxy-conflicts and growing tensions between Saudi Arabia and Iran are of major concern to all countries in the region and signal that more challenges could be ahead. The importance of fossil fuels to the Qatari economy is another characteristic which many countries in the region share, and the tendency of terrorist groups to attack these targets in order to cause economic damage and therefore exert pressure on these nations is an issue that could benefit from British-style integrated reviews.

Another major focus of the UK’s military strategy presented in this paper is modernization of armed forces and reduction of personnel numbers in pursuit of greater efficiency and with stronger reliance on technology and technologically advanced military hardware. This type of approach is extremely attractive to Qatar as a small nation with limited number of citizens to serve in the armed forces. Strength through superiority of weapons and strategy rather than numbers will be defining element of military success in the future, and all small nations can benefit by adopting these approaches to military modernization. The limiting factor for many nations may be the costs associated with such changes, but Qatar as a wealthy nation is perfectly poised to take advantage of this type of strategy in pursuit of stronger military power and greater defensive capabilities. Other nations with budget surpluses could benefit from a similar approach to armed forces modernization through investment into technology and science, with a focus on military hardware and systems in particular.

Other nations that could benefit from such an integration and implementation of a framework similar to that presented by the UK are those with an overseas armed forces presence. Nations that conduct military operations, be it training, peacekeeping or other military functions, can benefit from an integration strategy, as it will better illustrate the relationship between political goals and military practices, assist in identifying policy shortcomings and ensure that overseas military activities are aligned with and do not impede overall geopolitical goals and objectives.

Research Limitations & Further Research Opportunities

The main limitation of this study is the small sample size. However, given the nature of the study, this sample should be sufficient and not necessarily negatively impact the results and therefore the validity of the study. Another limitation is that we are focusing on only Qatar, which due to unique traits may make these results not necessarily applicable to other nations, even if they have a great deal in common with Qatar.

Despite the conclusive results that strongly support the assessment of the literature review, this study still has several shortcomings that must be addressed and there are opportunities for further research. The first major limitation of the study is the small sample size and limited data collected. Both the survey itself was short, composed of only five questions and comments, and the sample size was short as there were only five participants. Both these factors are a weak point in the study, and further research could be directed at a larger group, in order to generate more variance in the results as well as assisting in reaching a more conclusive consensus.

The reason that only five questions were selected was due to the nature of the participants, who all hold senior positions in the armed forces or department of defence, making their time valuable and therefore in the interest of facilitating their participation without imposition on their busy schedules, it was determined that a longer survey would be inappropriate. Furthermore, the decision to incorporate a survey into our research was made after the initial literature review, and therefore the time needed to find senior officials to participate was also limited.

Future research should include a greater number of participants, as the insights gained from just a few participants were of great value, and the opportunity for deeper insights is definitely present. Another major shortcoming of the study is that it focuses exclusively on Qatar and then generalizes the results based on subjective inferences that may not be accurate. In future research, the research could be more comprehensive and include various other nations both within the region and outside it, which would definitely strengthen the argument and make it clear that the results of our literature review and survey are applicable to more than just Qatar, and that our generalization of these results is both sound and logical.

Global Britain Policy Paper 
Figure 11: Global Britain Policy Paper 

Due to the length of the report and the literature surrounding it, there are many areas that could not be mentioned or included in our literature review, such as leadership in cultural and social issues of global importance, such as climate changing and fighting global warming. These and other factors of significance could be discussed in greater detail in future research. The specifics of British foreign policy decisions outlined in the policy paper could also be further scrutinized, but due to the general nature of the research question they were considered to be outside the scope of this report, the exception being majorly significant foreign policy shifts which were briefly touched on in the report.

Further research could also be done with a more focused analysis of the strategic framework put forward in the Global Britain paper. The strategic framework is arguably the most significant element of the review, as it clearly defines how Britain will achieve its desired position and maintain it in the years to come. While these strategic framework was a core focus of this research, the opportunity to unpack its details at grater length and more specificity remains open for further research.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Understanding the importance of coming out with the Integrated Review based on the changing global environment is not difficult. While many of the policies outlined are longstanding strategies for the UK, others are novel focuses. The recent changes in Britain’s status as a member of the UK and the controversial and divisive Brexit vote had left many wondering why the UK sought to leave the European Union and what policy objectives and goals could have led to this change. Many critics asserted that this move would weaken Britain and compromise its position as a global power. The Integrated Review provided answers to these concerns, and both clarified and justified the rationale behind these changes. In order to remain competitive in the changing global environment, Britain must remain a leader, both politically, economically, technologically, militarily and scientifically.

Britain, as a part of Europe, is beholden to European policies and must ensure that major decisions align with the interests and desires of its European partners. This type of relationship can be politically and militarily restrictive and is at odds with Britain’s historical position as a global leader. British foreign policy since the end of the World War had focused strongly on cooperation with its NATO allies and promoted an ‘all for one and one for all’ approach to foreign policy issues in which the interest of British allies were at play. However, compromising on issues and following European leadership has arguably weakened Britain in relation to its rivals. In this policy paper, Britain declares to its friends and foes that it will not be a follower, but rather a leader. While maintaining strong ties both to the United States, Britain’s declared top ally and strategic partner, and the European Union, with whom close ties and cooperation will continue, Britain asserts its intentions to safeguard and empower its Sovereignty and reframe itself in the global sphere. One of the most contentious issues with passionate and vocal supporters on both sides has been the new border policy introduced in the review.

Global Britain Policy Paper
Figure 12: Global Britain Policy Paper

The United Kingdom remains a global power, and a member of the United Nations security council, preserving its status as one of the leading political and military powers in the world. However, with the geopolitical influence of China and Russia on the rise, the need for a wholistic and integrated strategy of defence review that includes foreign policy, economics, military and defines the investment and modernization strategies that are being put in place to maintain and improve Britain’s global position is clearly presented. This policy paper is extremely broad in its scope and comprehensive and gives the people of Britain clear insights towards the government policies in the years leading up to the review as well as in the trajectory in the years to come.

It is clear that this strategy, built upon the strategic framework outlined in the paper was developed specifically from the perspective of a world power aiming at growing its influence. However, several other nations with much less significant positions in the global sphere are taking note of the policies put forward and are questioning whether a similar approach is needed. Among these nations are Canada and Australia, commonwealth nations that are inseparably intertwined with Britain both culturally and politically. Policy analysts from Canada and Australia believe that adoption of a similar integrated approach to defence reviews would increase resilience and improve their global position economically and politically. Qatar is a former British colony and many Qatari laws are derived directly from the British canon, which is undoubtedly a reason why Qatari strategies are so closely aligned with the United Kingdom among the nations that would surely benefit from a similar strategic frameworks.

Despite lacking the position of global leadership held by Britain, Qatari interests are very similar in many regards, such as strengthening Sovereignty, particularly when taking actions that do not strictly align with the policy interests of our regional partners in the Gulf Cooperation Council and beyond. This was clearly demonstrated by the recent Qatari diplomatic crisis and the blockade that was imposed on Qatar for insisting on defending the Sovereign decisions of our leadership even against pressure from our closest allies and neighbours. Other similarities between Qatar and the United Kingdom in this regard is Qatar’s high-tech innovation focus, which has long been a cornerstone in Qatari investment strategy. Qatar is a high-income nation with a sizeable budget surplus that has been constantly invested back into developing our infrastructure and technology and science objectives. Qatar is in a position to invest heavily in these areas in the coming decades, and adoption of a strategic framework similar to that presented in this policy paper would be of enormous benefit in codifying this focus and promoting it to Qatari society as a whole.

One of the most criticized elements of this policy is the focus on military modernizations, including the development of specific task forces within the armed forces to strengthen the UK military’s effectiveness and efficiency when conducting overseas operations, and growing and modernization of the UK’s nuclear arsenal. The growth in the UK’s nuclear arsenal has been criticized as a step backwards in terms of nuclear disarmament and a blow to global non-proliferation efforts, but has followed a trend among nuclear powers, including Russia and China which are of particular concern to the UK as global adversaries. Statements from Russian officials implying that the nuclear arsenals of the future could play a role in warfare beyond simply acting as a deterrent can definitely be seen as a justification for taking this step in order to ensure Britain is prepared for any and all eventualities. While Qatar is not a nuclear power and therefore these statements may seem irrelevant, the reality is that if Britain, one of our top allies is modernizing its military and nuclear arsenal and preparing itself for the potential of direct armed conflicts, then its allies and partners including Qatar should also be making similar preparations. Defensive preparations for the unlikely event of nuclear war seem like a step back in time to the Cold War, but they are an important element of defence strategy, particularly when the clear messages from our allies and bother nuclear powers seem to indicate that nuclear war is a real possibility.

Furthermore, while Britain has taken the modernization of its military as a major policy goal, the number of British armed forces personnel is set to be reduced to just over 70,000 active personnel. This would effectively half their military, which currently stands at over 150,000 men and women. This type of modernization focus coupled with dropping personnel numbers signals a strong optimization focus, in which efficiency is a major consideration. It also signals that investment in military technology could reduce the need for human personnel, another desirable characteristic of the framework. These sorts of changes are extremely important to smaller nations such as Qatar with limited Human Resources, and therefore potential shortages for military and security personnel could lead to dependence on allies and military shortcomings and weakened systems. The adoption of the British model in this regard would be of great benefit to Qatar, particularly being in a volatile region with various ongoing conflicts.

While the policy paper has been criticized as an echo of British imperialism that focuses too heavily on the idea of British exceptionalism and may perhaps be too ambitious and setting goals that are neither deliverable nor achievable, it is undoubtedly a significant overhaul of perspectives that had been identified as unsuitable or too passive. All nations seek to improve their status and standing, particularly in the face of global rivals and adversaries in an increasingly competitive geopolitical environment, but few have been able to so clearly articulate the steps that will be taken on a national level to achieve those goals to their people. The strategic framework is a clearly set out list of objectives and aims with a defined path to reach them, and the integrated joined-up approach to the review presents the different elements and favours that are significant during these changes and overhauls in a manner that highlights their importance and the role they play in achieving those policy goals.


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Appendix 1

Survey #1

Survey #1

Appendix 2

Survey #2

Survey #2

Appendix 3

Survey #3

Survey #3

Appendix 4

Survey #4

Survey #4

Survey #4

Appendix 5

Survey #5

Survey #5

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